Geosciences

Effect of glacial retraction on the productivity and trophic status of the lakes of the Fildes Peninsula: a paleolimnological approach.

Dr. Felipe García-Rodríguez, Dr. Claudia Piccini, Dr. Daniel Carrizo. Centro Universitario Regional del Este (CURE), Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable (IIBCE), INTA-CSIC. Contact: felipegr@fcien.edu.uy, claudia.piccini@gmail.com, dcarrizo@cab.inta-csic.es

The objective of these investigations is to reconstruct the paleolimnological conditions of lakes of the Collins Glacier for the last millennium, with special emphasis on variability. of sedimentation rates associated with changes in the magnitude of ice melt, which are have an impact on historical chemical, physical and biological conditions.
For this purpose, sediment samples will be taken and dates will be made (210Pb, Cs 137, 14C, TLD), sedimentology, micropaleontology, stable isotopes will be analyzed (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) heavy metals, mineralogy and scanning of elements by XRF. The following will also be carried out ancient DNA extractions from sediment cores to analyze the structure of the sediments. microbial communities based on the presence of phylogenetic marker genes. compare the structure of the communities between the lakes.
Based on the above information, infer changes in sedimentation from melting ice, the impact of environmental changes on the environment, and the microbial communities and therefore on the trophic conditions of the lakes, etc. The scientific information generated is important to understand the effect of glacial retraction/advance on the historical paleolimnological conditions of the Fildes Peninsula lakes, especially on organic matter composition, trophic status and productivity, and historical microbial communities. Therefore, it constitutes an important input for the planning of conservation strategies and management of lakes in the Fildes Peninsula.

 

Physical properties and geological features around Artigas Antarctic Science Base (BCAA), King George Island.

Dr. Leda Sánchez. Faculty of Sciences – DINAMIGE-MIEM – CURN. Contact: leda@fcien.edu.uy

The planet Earth, both inside and on its surface, is composed predominantly of rocky material, which is presented in different states (rigid, disaggregated, in fusion, semifusion, etc.). Therefore, the study of the properties of the soil and rocky materials are of relevance when arming the evolutionary history of the Earth. Also, the study of geological and tectonic processes that occur both on the surface and in depth, directly affect the inhabitants of any region, in this particular case, on King George Island (Antarctica). Within this conceptual framework, this project seeks to study the physical properties and geological characteristics in the vicinity of the Artigas Scientific Base (BCAA). In particular, the aim is to obtain information regarding the geological evolution of the region, make magnetometric maps, study the properties of the subsoil (electrical resistivity and temperature) and determine the thickness of the glacier. The study of the properties of the subsoil will allow, among other things, to determine its stability for BCAA building constructions.

 

Topographic, geodetic and geophysical surveys for the development of the Antarctic Geodetic Infrastructure, the International Geodetic Reference System and the Geographic Information System of King George Island.

Tte. Cnel. Gustavo Caubarrere. Military Geographic Institute (IGM). Contact: gustavo.caubarrere@igm.gub.uy

The activities to be developed are part of two international cooperation projects promoted by SCAR: SCAR-GIANT (Antarctic Geodesic Infrastructure) and SCAR-KGIS (King George Island Geographic Information System). The main objective is to establish and maintain a High Precision Geodetic Infrastructure in order to georeference any geographic object located on the Earth’s surface. With the installation of semi-permanent and permanent Passive (milestone) and Active (CORS) Stations, it is possible to study different geodetic and geophysical components (tides, cortical movements and deformations, marine currents, wind, temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, etc.) as well as to carry out topographic, geodetic, photogrammetric and geophysical surveys for different technical and scientific purposes. It is also intended to implement a Geographic Information System of King George Island (KGIS) with the main purpose of keeping integrated and updated a cartographic base and geospatial information referring to King George Island. It is expected to make a digital surface model, a digital terrain model, level curves every meter (1m), an orthomosaic, and a 3D reconstruction of the environment of the Artigas Antarctic Scientific Base.

 

Monitoring of the average sea level in Peninsula Fildes, King George Island.

Tte. Cnel. Gustavo Caubarrere, CF Niki Silvera. Instituto Geográfico Militar (IGM), Servicio de Oceanografía, Hidrografía y Meteorología de la Armada (SOHMA). Contact: gustavo.caubarrere@igm.gub.uy, sohma_oce_jefe@armada.mil.uy

This project is developed in coordination between the Instituto Geográfico Militar (IGM) and the Servicio de Oceanografía, Hidrografía y Meteorología de la Armada (SOHMA). Through the installation of sensors, passive (milestone) and active (CORS) stations, the aim is to accurately determine the variability over time of the Mean Sea Level (MSL) in Maxwell Bay near the Artigas Scientific Base (BCAA), in the first instance until completing a nodal cycle (18.6 years). Therefore the main objective of this project is to investigate and provide reliable and concrete information on the variability of the NMM in a context of Climate Change. The data obtained will allow to strengthen the knowledge of the tidal regime in the area, help in the prediction and publication of the tide table for the BCAA, contribute to the historical database of mean sea level and support logistic activities related to the coastline.

 

Extreme Environments in Planetary Exploration: geolipids, stable isotopes and associated mineralogy on King George Island.

Dr. Daniel Carrizo. INTA-CSIC. Contact: dcarrizo@cab.inta-csic.es

The ExoMars mission is scheduled for March 2021 with the main objective of detecting possible evidences of past or present life on Mars and knowing the geological history of water on the red planet (ESA, 2013). Collecting the most valuable samples on Mars requires the ability to recognize the traces of habitability, their modifications over time, their significance and their preservation potential. A current and innovative approach to detecting past biological activity is the use of molecular markers as proxies. Molecular biomarkers are natural products that can be assigned to a particular origin, the most useful being organic compounds with high taxonomic specificity (limited number of sources and well defined) and high conservation potential (recalcitrant against geochemical changes). The structural and isotopic information in biomarkers allows them to be distinguished from abiogenic organic compounds, thus constituting an important tool in the search for extraterrestrial life. The main objective of this project is to characterize geochemically (biomarkers, isotopes and minerals) extreme environments present in King George Island and to use them in space research activities. The data set generated will be used to expand the spectrum library and validate the data obtained by Raman instrument from the rover vehicle of ESA’s ExoMars 2021 mission.